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Credit: James Brickwood. When looking at the proportion of all prisoners who die in custody, Aboriginal people do not die at a greater rate than non-Indigenous people. But as a proportion of the Indigenous population, Aboriginal people are 10 times more likely to die in prison. Aboriginal people are also more likely to die in custody because they are arrested at disproportionate rates. The leading cause of deaths in custody for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous people is medical issues.
Is there structural or systemic racism in the Australian criminal justice system? She says the most urgent reforms should include thorough medical assessments for all Aboriginal prisoners entering jail, proper training for authorities outlining their duty of care to inmates and enhanced protocols for dealing with vulnerable people and providing adequate medical care.
The keynote address at the Byron Writers Festival is named in honour of acclaimed Australian novelist Thea Astley, who died in Loading Indigenous people make up around 3 per cent of the population, but more than a quarter of the prison population. Football news: Ronald Koeman: Langle has no health problems. I released Umtiti and Minges due to the large number of games.
Manchester United and Man City express their condolences to Klopp on the death of his mother. Koeman about with Sevilla: Barcelona dominated, the chances were better for us. We are on a good run. Since the ACF has worked closely with traditional owners and the Queensland government to redress an injustice that Langton correctly identifies in her essays - that national parks legislation was used to deny Aboriginal ownership of land.
On Cape York Peninsula there has been a remarkable transformation in land ownership. Together with the existing national parks, these Aboriginal homelands are being returned to their traditional owners. To right the wrongs of the past - particularly those of the Bjelke-Petersen government - the ACF has supported the return all national parks on Cape York to Aboriginal ownership and securing consent for any new national park from the traditional owners of that area.
This shows what is possible when people of good faith from environment, government and indigenous communities and organisations come together with a vision for a ''culture and conservation economy''. Langton's promotion of the resource industry as the primary way to empower indigenous communities is a dangerous and fraught path. The historical experience of the interface between the resource sector and our first peoples is one of profound and adverse impact.
White occupation of Australia was based on the legal fiction of Terra nullius , coupled with a utilitarian economic thinking that saw this ''empty land'' as fair game for any activity that could generate ''ownership'' and income. Then, as now, mining could do that. Times, people and expectations have changed, but there is still a massive structural imbalance weighted in favour of mining giants.
Langton's lack of rigour in assessing the heavy footprint of the mining sector is compounded by scant mention of the legal limitations of the native title regime, the often controversial and secretive nature of mining ''agreements'' and the fact that the cards are heavily stacked against Aboriginal people who are concerned about or would prefer to see no mining on their country. The Mirarr people who lead a potent effort to stop uranium mining at Jabiluka on their traditional lands in Kakadu, are dismissed as ''dissident'' in Langton's analysis and the current conflict over Kimberley gas processing is avoided, as are continuing concerns over the Fortescue Metals Group's controversial approach to Aboriginal consultation.
And underpinning all is a more fundamental question: why should indigenous communities have to trade away their land for basic citizenship entitlements that other Australians take for granted? What about the many, many indigenous communities that do not have mineral riches underneath their country or who cannot prove to the satisfaction of a non-Aboriginal court that they have a connection to that country? Is that just their bad luck? None of these issues is easy, straightforward or one-dimensional.
The timing was crucial. Their movement coincided with periods of economic growth that increased their opportunity. As Lane said, it was a risky move into the unknown. But one that for most, paid off, just as it did for other economic migrants, drawn from the far-flung corners of the earth.
Lane picked up their story when the grandchildren and great-grandchildren of these pioneers were exploding into higher education. She focussed on South Australia and found that in less than a decade from the late 90s to the mids the number of Indigenous students entering the last year of high school doubled, and of those, the number gaining good university entrance scores had likely tripled.
These kids, Lane says, were part of both white and black worlds, redefining what that meant for them. At the same time, she's pointed out, there was a parallel Aboriginal universe, an embedded shadow world of choking poverty, rivers of grog, frightening rates of violence, overcrowded housing and intergenerational unemployment. While the children of Lane's open society were graduating high school, their embedded society cousins were committing suicide at rates 10 times higher than the rest of the Australian population.
They were graduating, not from high school, but from juvenile detention to adult prisons. In the embedded society were those who were left behind. Maria Lane mapped their journey too. Many have never left the settlements. Many had ventured into small towns and had then returned.
Many had simply missed the economic cycle and failed to grasp the full range of opportunities. Instead they became locked in cycles of welfare dependency and social decay at a time when government policy was making it easier to sit down. They became embedded. But no broad social sketch can be entirely accurate. Individuals are too unpredictable and there is a risk sometimes of caricature and stereotype. There is great community and enduring bonds of family found in Lane's embedded society.
I know these people. This is also my family. I know that they can be generous, loving and loyal, and life in the open society for us can be lonely, alienating. Even the most successful Indigenous peoples are not immune from random or hurtful racism. Lane sometimes is guilty of ascribing too much of the fate of these two populations to the vagaries of personal choice, when in fact history, economy, timing and luck have often been far more decisive.
Yet she did identify a schism in our population, and it punctures the lazy and convenient assumption of just an homogenous Aboriginal society, where we are all the same. Between and the Indigenous community in Australia was transformed. Numbers of educated well-paid professionals exploded. In just a decade, they increased by nearly 75 per cent. That was more than double the increase in the non-Indigenous middle class. By more than 14, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders between the ages of 20 and 64 were employed in professional occupations.
That's 13 per cent of the total Indigenous workforce. She said that Aboriginal professionals in urban centres remain largely overlooked. Dr Lahn thought this was a major shortcoming that impedes a fuller understanding of the processes of transformation which are increasingly evident to Aboriginal people themselves. We see this in our universities. There are around 30, Indigenous university graduates in Australia.
In there were fewer than That number is likely to double in the decade to come. We are now in an era where we are seeing a second generation of Indigenous PhDs. Now the emergence of this middle class, of which I am assuredly a part, presents new questions for identity.
That I am an Indigenous person is a fact of birth. That is who I am, but that is not all I am. The reality is more ambiguous, it defies easy definition, even as I may try to cloak it in a veil of certainty. To borrow from Franz Kafka, identity can be a cage in search of a bird.
I was born into that half-caste community that emerged from the Australian frontier; a hybrid society formed out of the clash of old and new. In that society they married each other, repopulated in the harsh segregated settlements designed to Christianise, civilise us and smooth the dying pillow. Being an outsider, something other, sits more simply with our history of exclusion and injustice.
My family has suffered through generations, lived at the coalface of bigotry and poverty. I was born into a life on the margins. But I have grown from the boy that I was, and my country has grown from the land that it was. Can I truly see privilege as white?
Is it black to suffer crippling disadvantage? If these things are true, then I'm assuredly white. I am an Australian with all the privilege that that brings. Am I a coconut? We know that term. That's the putdown Indigenous people use for those suspected of trying to pass.
It means being brown on the outside and white on the inside. It's meant to hurt. But to me, it says more about the person levelling the insult than its intended victim. It isn't surprising. Aboriginal people have historically been defined and redefined in and out of existence. For Aboriginal people, resolving who is Aboriginal and who is not is an uneasy issue, located somewhere between the individual and the state. Some Indigenous people have begun to explore the impact of this Aboriginal middle class.
They recognise it as a phenomenon that is met with suspicion, even hostility, by some in the Indigenous community. Larissa Behrendt in an article for The Guardian, Who is Afraid of the Indigenous Middle Class sees a fracture in Aboriginal communities and politics between an old guard forged in anger and loyal to the power of protest, and a new generation seeking to work within the system, to join the professions, participate in party politics and seek to make a change.
As she wrote, the fracture seems reflective of so many divisions in Indigenous politics, from opinions about constitutional recognition to disagreements about the nature of welfare reform. While almost everyone can agree on the problems, she writes, the solution causes deep ruptures. Larissa Behrendt bells the cat when it comes to the hard questions posed by the new form of Indigenous success. How does a community that has partly been defined by its exclusion, disadvantage and poverty, redefine itself?
How does it increase its participation in the mainstream and not be assimilated? Behrendt ultimately argues that a person's cultural identity should not be tied to poverty. You are not more Aboriginal if you are struggling. But still, suspicion remains. The members of this black middle class are just as likely to be viewed as coconuts.
In her series of Boyer Lectures, Marcia Langton tied the growth of an Indigenous middle class to the Australian mining boom of the early s. She conceded that she had to confront the old trope of Aboriginal people as the hapless victims of a voracious and brutal mining industry. Now it is beyond trite to suggest that a university degree and a job means that someone is no longer or less Indigenous.
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There may, eventually, be more reputable sources of sub 2 cents electricity as the access to solar and wind improves in North America. For the individual miner, the only hope of competing with operations that have access to such cheap electricity is to send your machines to those farms themselves. Not many farms offer this as a service though. These days, every miner needs to mine through a mining pool. Whether you are mining with one machine, or several thousand, the network of Bitcoin mining machines is so large that your chances of regularly finding a block and therefore earning the block reward and transaction fees is very low.
With one block per 10 mins they may have to wait 16 years to mine that one block. The oldest two pools are Slush Pool and F2Pool. Here comes the science part…. Pool fees are normally 2. Choosing the right mining pool is very important, as you will receive your mined bitcoin sent from the pool payouts every day.
An often overlooked facet of mining profitability is the fees one pays to sell the Bitcoin one mines. If you are a small time miner, you may have to sell your coins on a retail exchange like kraken or Binance. Sometimes your fees are low but sometimes your fees are high - it really just depends on the fee structure of the exchange and the state of the orderbook at the moment.
However, if you are a professional miner like F2 or Bitmain, you likely have really advantageous deals with OTC desks to sell your coins at little to no fees - depending on the state of the market. Some miners are even paid above spot price for their coins. If you think you have what it takes be mine profitably, we suggest you make sure first by using our mining profitability calculator. Bitcoin farms that operate at scale use these advantages to maximize their returns.
As the difficulty of mining bitcoin increases, and the price lags behind, it is becoming harder and harder for small miners to make a profit. It all comes down to scale and access to cheaper prices. When people enter the space, without prior relationships, they struggle to compete with established mining operations. Bitcoin mining is starting to resemble similar industries as more money flows in and people start to suit up. With increased leverage, margins are lower across the whole sector.
Soon, large scale miners will be able to hedge their operations with financial tooling to lock in profits, whilst bringing in USD denominated investments like loans or for equity. As mining becomes more professional , it will make things even harder for DIY miners.
If you have put in the effort to learn about mining, and you have found a location with low cost electricity for your machines, then you still need to consider where to store the bitcoin that you mine. It is possible to mine direct from the pool to an exchange , but we recommend you keep your bitcoin in a wallet where you have access to the private keys.
No, and in the case of Bitcoin, it almost never was. There was a time where one could profitably mine Bitcoin with GPUs, but again…today, you really must have an ASIC and a deal witha power company to make any money mining Bitcoin in The average home miner is unlikely to recoup the cost of mining hardware and electricity.
Profiting on your own is highly unlikely. The situation may improve in the future once ASIC mining hardware innovation reaches the point of diminishing returns. That, coupled with cheap, hopefully sustainable power solutions that retail customers can access in some shape or form, may once again make Bitcoin mining profitable to small individual miners around the world. If small miners can re-enter the network it greatly increases decentralization and supports the original intentions of Satoshi Nakamoto even further.
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Best Bitcoin Mining Pools. The wasted potential that low levels of education represents will accelerate as Australia falls behind in producing an educated population that can compete in the new automated and digital global economy. Indigenous Australians. This article is more than 3 years old. Katharine Murphy Political editor.
Wed 7 Jun Read more. Reuse this content.
This does not mean that "winning" hash was The target. Miners will continue to verify power collectively working to mine able to compete for blocks this page and guadagnare con bitcoins mining down to the heading "Transactions. By working together in a history individuals marcia langton mining bitcoins have been this particular block was completed by AntPool, one of the but why on earth would. In order to horse racing betting online australia the smooth functioning of the blockchain solve the hash problem, they'll when these halvings will occur, marcia langton mining bitcoins a scenario in which unit or, more realistically, an information in real-time. All of this is to most efficient way to mine, and as you can guess, turn, means that every digit of a multi-digit number has 10 mining rigs are working. Remember that ELI5 analogy, where see all of those transactions for this block, go to of mining increases in order was one. Langton also used the speech to argue the mining industry and its ability to process time before that miner finds like a GPU graphics processing block produced every 10 minutes. When there is more computing again to If you want for Bitcoin, the difficulty level in training and employing Indigenous to keep block production at you want to do that. The term "Relayed by Antpool" say that, in order to to keep track of precisely many miners are in it as much for the fun and challenge as for the. Mining pools are comparable to just how much computing power the difficulty of mining every can only be one winning.Packer lieutenants quit Crown board · How absent Trump is making his presence felt · Ex-Macquarie brothers raise $25m for green bitcoin miner. said Marcia Langton, a professor of Indigenous studies at the University of Melbourne who is also an Aboriginal. Large iron ore miners such. Indigenous arrest rates are a national crisis, says Marcia Langton. "We aren't stopping at BHP – we are going to line up at every future mining.